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ゲートハウスインテリア、ハーレック城

ゲートハウスインテリア、ハーレック城


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エドワード1世の城

エドワード1世はウェールズを征服した後、ウェールズの反乱から彼の買収を守るために、離れて行進する数日間、手ごわい鉄の城の輪を作りました。エドワードが敵であるスノードニアとアングルシーの最後のリウェリンを孤立させることに成功した最初のウェールズのキャンペーンの後、イギリスの王はフリント、ルドラン、ビルスウェルス、アベリストウィスの城を建てました。 1282年にリウェリンの2回目の蜂起が失敗した後、アイアンリングはコンウィ、カーナーボン、ボーマリスの城を含むように拡張されました。

カーナーボン城

司令官カーナーボン城は、北ウェールズとアングルシーの間のメナイ海峡の南端に位置し、バンガーの町の南西8マイルにあります。

カーナーボン城

スノードニアの中心部がイギリス軍に占領された後、1283年に城の建設が始まりました。城はエドワード1世のマスターアーキテクト、マスタージェイムズオブセントジョージの指導の下に建てられました。軍事拠点としてだけでなく、政府や王宮の所在地としても設計され、コンスタンティノープルの城壁を反映することを目的としていました。エドワードが彼の父、ヘンリー3世の治世の晩年の間に十字軍で見たもの。戦略的に重要な地点であるセイオント川の河口を最高に走るこの城は、独特の多角形の塔、威圧的な胸壁、色の縞模様の石積みを誇り、城壁に囲まれたカーナーボンの町を支配しています。

建設費は、当時、総額22,000ポンドと多額でした。城は完成することはなく、注意深く調べると、内壁のいくつかの場所に見える接合部が明らかになります。これは、建設されたことのない壁をさらに受け入れることを目的としていました。

エドワード1世の4番目の息子であり、最終的に相続人である不運なエドワード2世は、1284年4月25日の聖マルコの日にカーナーボン城で生まれました。

1294年のウェールズ蜂起の際、マドッグ・アプ・リウェリンが城を占領し、エドワードは迅速に対応し、1295年に再建しました。ウェールズの指導者で愛国者のオーウェン・グレンドーワーが1403年と1404年に反乱を起こしたとき、ヘンリー4世の治世中に包囲されました。内戦、城は1646年にクロムウェルのラウンドヘッドに降伏しました。

カーナーボン城は、1911年にプリンスオブウェールズとして将来のエドワード8世(後のウィンザー公爵)が叙任され、1969年7月にチャールズ皇太子が豪華な儀式を行った場所でした。チャールズ皇太子の叙任、アンソニー、スノードン伯爵、当時の叔母であるマーガレット王女の夫が、デイズの上にモダンなパースペックスの天蓋を設計した際に、特別な王冠が作られました。スノードン伯爵は1963年に城の巡査に任命されました。

カナーボン城は現在CADWが所有しており、ロイヤルウェールズフュージリアーズの連隊博物館があります。

コンウェイ城

壮大なコンウェイ城は、「中世ヨーロッパの偉大な要塞の1つ」と評されており、間違いなくウェールズの城の中で最も印象的な城の1つです。

コンウェイ城

城は、ウェールズの王子Llewelyn Fawrによって設立された初期のウェールズの修道院の敷地に建てられ、1283年から1289年の間に建てられた王のマスター建築家メイソンであるセントジョージのジェームズによって設計されました。

城は岩の上にある戦略的な位置にあり、コンウィ河口を支配しています。近づくと、深い強さと難攻不落の感覚が伝わります。コンウィ城はエドワード1世の最も高価なプロジェクトのひとつで、もともとはしっくいのコートがありました。

城は訪問者にそびえ立つカーテンウォールの上部を歩く機会を提供し、そこから町、中世の壁、コンウィ河口の景色が見事です。

コンウィは一見同心の城に似ていますが、より正確には直線的で、8つの塔と2つの甕城があり、壁の厚さは4.6メートル(15フィート)です。城の形は、城が建てられた岩によって大きく左右されました。内側の区には、1283年にエドワード1世とその配偶者、エリナーオブカスティーユのために建てられたアパートがあります。城の内部は、カーナーボンほど完全ではありません。巨大な塔の直径は9.1メートル(30フィート)を超え、壁の厚さは最大4.6メートル(15フィート)です。高さは合計約70フィートで、部屋と階段を備えたいくつかの階があります。

コンウェイ城

1294年にマドッグ王子が率いるウェールズ人の反乱が勃発し、エドワードの城のいくつかが被害を受けました。彼は反乱を鎮圧するために軍隊の長でウェールズに行進し、そこで彼はコンウィに本部を設置した。コンウィ川が氾濫したとき、彼が城の中に閉じ込められた直後、数日間城の中にイギリス人を閉じ込めました。食料と水の供給は、水が最終的に後退する前に危険なほど少なくなりました。

コンウィ城は、その完成の世代の中で荒廃した状態に退化しました。修理と改造は、14世紀に黒太子のエドワードによって行われました。

城は1294年のウェールズ蜂起の際に包囲されました。リチャード2世は、1399年にアイルランドから帰国した後、彼のいとこであり王位のライバルであるヘンリー・オブ・ボーリングブロークに代わって行動するノーサンバランド伯に誘惑されるまでそこにとどまりました。ノーサンバーランドはリチャードに安全な通行を許可するために城の礼拝堂で誓ったが、彼の誓いに戻り、フリントで彼を投獄した。

17世紀初頭までに、城は荒廃した状態に陥り、1628年にコンウェイ伯爵にわずか100ポンドで売却されました。イングランド内戦の期間中、それはヨークの王党派大司教によって強化され防御されましたが、3か月間続いた包囲の後、クロムウェルの円頂党によって占領されました。

現在、城はCADW(ウェールズヒストリックトラスト)が所有しています。中世の城での生活を描いた展示が定期的に開催されています。チャペルタワーには、城とコンウィの町の縮尺模型も展示されています。

ハーレック城

急な岩の露頭の高いところに劇的に位置するハーレック城は、その海側がアイリッシュ海にそびえる断崖によって守られており、堀は他の3つの側面を保護しています。エドワード1世の時代、海は崖のふもとにあり、海から階段が走っていました。

ハーレック城

城の建設は1283年に始まり、1290年に完成しました。城は同心円状のデザインで、各コーナーに大きな丸い塔がある内側のカーテンウォールがあり、周囲を囲むはるかに低い壁の外周によってさらに防御が提供されます。アウターベイリー。内壁には、大広間、礼拝堂、パン屋、穀倉、小ホールなどの国内の建物がありました。巨大なゲートハウスは、城のより脆弱な側を保護します。

ゲートハウスは、インナーベイリーの中で最も印象的な建造物です。砦と同様に、3階建ての構造では、入り口の通路の両側に2つの塔が形成され、両側に2つの警備室があります。 2つの小さな円筒形の塔がインナーベイリーに突き出ており、ゲートハウスには国内の宿泊施設も含まれていました。

ウェールズの指導者マドッグ・アプ・リウェリンは、1294-5年の反乱の際に城への攻撃に失敗しましたが、1404年にオーウェン・グレンドーワーが城を占領することに成功し、そこで議会を開き、しばらくの間、城に奪還される前に首都として機能しました。 1408年の英語

薔薇戦争の間、ハーレック城は7年間続く長い包囲の対象であり、城はランカストリアンの大義のために最後に持ちこたえました。結局、飢餓と飢饉により、防御側は降伏を余儀なくされ、巡査のダフィッド・アプ・イエアンは、ヨーク朝の敵であるハーバート卿に城を引き渡した。メン・オブ・ハーレックの歌は、守備隊の擁護者を記念して書かれました。

城は、南北戦争の最初の部分で、王族の大義のために持ちこたえられたときに、さらに長い包囲を受けました。それは最終的に1647年に円頂党軍に降伏した。

ルドラン城

有名な隣人ほど有名ではありませんが、フリントシャーのルドラン城は印象的です。

ルドラン城

クルーイド川のほとりに位置し、その目的のために特別に建設された運河を経由して食料を持ち込むことができました。これは、当時1,800人の溝があった真に巨大な企業でした。砂岩ルドランは、エドワード1世によって建設された最初の同心の要塞であり、印象的な対称性を誇っています。 。ひし形の内側の病棟には高いカーテンウォールがあり、4階建ての巨大なツインタワーのゲートハウスと丸い塔が斜めに並んでいます。広い溝が狭い八角形の外側の病棟を保護します。建物は1277年に始まり、城は1282年に完成しました。

リズラン城は、1284年にルドラン法令に署名する場所でした。この法令は、ウェールズの法則を英国の法則に置き換え、最後のリズランの敗北後に発効しました。和解はヘンリー8世の治世中の1536年の合同法​​まで続きました。

ルドラン城は南北戦争中に占領され、すぐに生地に大きなダメージが与えられました。廃墟はさらに崩壊し、石の多くは地元の建物から運び去られました。 1947年に保護工事が開始されました。現在、城はCADWが所有しています。

ビューマリス城

メナイ橋の北東6kmのアングルシー島にある未完成のビューマリス城は、エドワード1世がウェールズを支配するために建てた最後の大要塞でした。ビューマリスという名前は、美しい沼地、ルボーマレのフランス語に由来しています。

ビューマリス城

城は、マドッグ・アプ・リウェリンの下でのウェールズの蜂起の鎮圧に続いて、1295年に始まり、35年以上に渡りました。エドワードの建築家、マスタージェイムズオブセントジョージは、彼の多大な経験と創造性をそのデザインに生かしました。これは、彼がこれまでに行った最大かつ最も野心的なベンチャーであり、同心円状に計画された城の完璧な例です。

セントジョージのマスタージェイムズは、エドワードがヨーロッパから輸入した職人でしたが、後に英語化された名前を採用しました。エドワードは彼の仕事に大いに感謝し、彼に1日3シリングの莫大な金額を支払いました(当時の労働者は週に約1シリングを稼ぎました)建築家はウェールズの邸宅も与えられました。野心的なプロジェクトには膨大な労働力が必要でした。城の建設にはおそらく約2,500人の労働者が雇われ、その中には約400人の熟練した石工が石を切って敷設しました。

城には、壁の下部の外側の回路に囲まれた内側の防御リングがあり、跳ね橋にまたがる堀の防御が追加されています。攻撃者は、入り口を確保するために14の別々の主要な障害物を乗り越えなければならなかったでしょう。巧妙に配置された何百もの矢印スリットと、入り口を守るための致命的な殺人孔があります。外壁と内壁への入り口はずらされています。つまり、敵が外壁を突破した場合、内門に到達する前に、敵は鋭く向きを変え、城壁から殺人的なブロードサイドに直面する必要があります。

内区のカーテンウォールには、各隅に塔があり、東と西の壁に中央の塔があり、2つの砲塔のある北門と南門があります。城の内部には美しい礼拝堂があり、今日はウェールズのエドワード城に関する展示会が開催されています。

その建設に莫大な金額が費やされたにもかかわらず、ビューマリス城は決して完成せず、ビューマリスの重要な防御は決して試されませんでした。エドワード1世によるウェールズの征服は、建設時に事実上完了しており、他の多くのウェールズの城とは異なり、内戦中は攻撃の対象にはなりませんでした。

城はCADWによって管理されており、世界遺産に登録されています。


ハーレック城

どの建築プロジェクトにも独特の複雑さがあり、改修と改修、新築の建設、さまざまな持続可能な省エネ技術の実施を含むプロジェクトも例外ではありません。しかし、ウェールズのグウェネッドにあるハーレック城の場合、前者は、特別科学関心地区の端にある保護地域のユネスコ世界遺産にある、予定されている古代の記念碑の隣の建物で達成する必要がありました。 (SSSI)、国立公園内。 JCT Standard Building Contract With Quantities 2011は、契約ソリューションを提供しました。

ハーレック城はウェールズで最も重要な中世の城の1つと見なされており、同心の城のデザインの教科書の例です。中世にウェールズのグウィネズ公国を征服するキャンペーンの一環として、エドワード1世によって建てられました。城の主要な構造は1283年から1289年の間に完成しました。

ハーレックは、エドワード1世の主任建築家兼エンジニア、マスタージェイムズオブセントジョージによって設計された王宮のグループに属しています。ジェームズオブセントジョージのデザインは、ヨーロッパで最も洗練された革新的な軍事工学の例の1つです。ハーレックは、壁と塔の2つのリングを誇り、非常に強力な東のゲートハウスがあります。ほぼすべての角度から難攻不落のその秘密兵器は、城から崖のふもとまで続く長さ200フィート(61m)の階段でした。 1987年、ハーレック城はユネスコの世界遺産に指定されました。

2009年に、観光地としてのハーレックの価値を認識したCadw(ウェールズ政府の歴史的環境サービス)は、世界クラスの遺産の魅力を提供するために周辺施設を開発および改善することにより、訪問者の体験を一新したいと考えていました。ヘリテージツーリズムとコンバージェンス資金調達プロジェクト(それ自体はウェールズ政府と欧州連合コンバージェンス基金が共同で資金を提供)からの資金提供を受けて、Cadwは作業を実行するためにRL Davies&amp SonLtdを任命しました。

このプロジェクトは、既存のハーレックキャッスルホテル(旧3階建てのビクトリア朝のホテル)を改装し、5つの豪華なアパートメント、新しいビジターエリア、新しい小売店、オフィスに対応できるように改造することで構成されました。変電所、工場室、茶室、トイレブロックの新築工事もありました。プロジェクトを完了したのは、ビジターセンターと城のゲートハウスを結ぶ47mの新築の橋でした。

オリジナルのハーレックキャッスルホテルは、地元の採石場の所有者であり起業家でもあるサミュエルホランドによって1876年に建てられました。 1867年に鉄道が建設された後、ホテルはハーレックの町をホリデーリゾートとして確立するのに役立ちました。建物は、城とスノードニア国立公園の景色を取り入れるように設計されています。

ビクトリア朝の建物は繊細に修復され、現代的な用途に適合しています。建物はリサイクルされたウェールズのスレートで再屋根付けされています。古いセメントベースのモルタルポインティングは石灰モルタルに置き換えられ、建物が再び呼吸できるようになりました。内部的には、壁からセメントとアザミのしっくいが剥がされ、石灰のしっくいに置き換えられています。新しいインテリア作品は、コントラストを提供するために意図的に、しかし敏感に設計され、構築されています。

新しいビルドの拡張機能は、質の悪い1980年代の構造に取って代わります。広大なガラスのインフィルパネルを備えた露出したラミネート材のフレームは、スノードニア山脈全体の壮大な景色を望み、風景とのつながりを提供します。

ホテルは毎日の訪問者に優れたアクセスと制御を提供しましたが、建物にはCadwの要件を超えた2つの上層階がありました。ウェールズ訪問との話し合いにより、この地域では4〜5つ星の宿泊施設が不足していることが確認されました。これらのフロアは、地元企業に譲歩の機会を提供する豪華な自炊式の宿泊施設に変換されました。

建設前の調査中に、ホテルの敷居レベルが城のゲートハウスのレベルと1メートル未満異なることが発見されました。これにより、新しい拡張機能の構築を通じて、2つのポイント間にレベルのアクセスを作成する機会が提供されました。

スノードニア国立公園局(SNPA)とユネスコの承認が得られた場合、ビジターセンターと城のゲートハウスの間の橋梁工事は、実証可能な設計基準の対象となります。

作品の性質と場所の両方の観点から、プロジェクトの大きな課題の1つは、ユネスコの世界遺産の範囲内で作業することでした。このプロジェクトでは、保存、改修、再構築、および新構築を慎重に組み合わせて提供する必要がありました。橋梁工事では、必要な計画と設計の承認を得るために、ウェールズの設計委員会、SNPA、ユネスコ、および地域コミュニティとの18か月のモデリングと協議が必要でした。

橋の解決策は、スパンと地面の間の視覚的な接続を最小限に抑えて、47mの「S」字型の鋼製の吊り下げトラス構造を作成することでした。軽量で細身の構造は、新しい訪問者の施設と13世紀の城の古代の織物を共感的かつ敏感に結び付けています。 600年ぶりに、あらゆる能力の訪問者が当初の意図どおりに城にアクセスできるようになりました。

新築の拡張の基礎の発掘中に発見されたプロジェクトチームのもう1つの課題は、15世紀にさかのぼる13の遺体を含む発掘された人間の埋葬と、中世の通りの間口と関連する2つの建物の残骸でした。特徴。かつて、このプロジェクトでは6人の常勤の考古学者が雇用されていました。

このプロジェクトの重要な推進力の1つは、ビクトリア朝のホテルを繊細に復元するという範囲内で、建物の建設と運営における持続可能性への取り組みと、革新的で影響の少ない多くの建築技術と機能です。

通気性

古い建物の固い石の壁は防水ではありません&#8211雨が降ると、石とモルタルに水が吸収されます。外壁は通気性のある石灰モルタルを使用して再指定され、内壁は通気性のある石灰石膏と特殊塗料で覆われています。材料は水を逃がし、壁が濡れた場合に壁が乾くのを助けます。

建物は外部への熱損失を減らすために十分に断熱されています。城を見下ろす大きなガラス窓も二重ガラスです。

屋上緑化と雨水減衰タンク

新しいビルドエクステンションの屋根にある植物はCO2を吸収し、酸素を放出します。屋上緑化はまた、建物を冬は暖かく、夏は涼しく保つための断熱材を提供します。屋上緑化の植物品種は、固有の昆虫種を奨励するために特別に地元で選択されています。屋上緑化には、雨水を大きな減衰タンクに集め、続いて駐車場の下を流れる小川に集めるという追加機能があります。暴風雨が発生した場合、タンクは小川への水の流れを遅くし、さらに下流で洪水が発生する可能性を減らします。

コウモリのねぐら箱と鳥の箱

建物の軒先にはコウモリのねぐらボックスが取り付けられており、コウモリを励ますために適切な湿度と気候で特別に設計された素材で加熱されています。小さな鳥の種が建物の中や周りで繁殖するのを奨励するために、巣箱も設置されています。プロジェクト自体は「特別科学関心地区(SSSI)」の境界にあるため、自然環境との密接なつながりが重要です。

建物は、LED照明を独自のシーン制御システムと組み合わせて使用​​し、エネルギー効率と美的に心地よいライトアレイの選択を組み合わせています。このシステムは、従来の手動切り替えよりも速く、正確で、環境に合わせて簡単に変更できます。

30m²近くの太陽光発電パネルが建物に電力を生成し、長期的に持続可能なエネルギー資源を提供します。既存のプロパンタンクガス供給の代わりに空気熱源ヒートポンプを使用することで、効率が向上し、コストが削減されました。 ASHPと床下暖房システムの組み合わせにより、建物の二酸化炭素排出量がさらに削減されます。

照明の製造の大部分はカーボンニュートラルであり、製造プロセス中に生成された炭素を相殺するために地元で植樹することによって達成されます。

このプロジェクトは、設計段階で「非常に良い」BREEAM評価を獲得し、同じ段階後の評価を達成するために順調に進んでいます。目標は、運用エネルギー使用の「優れた」を達成することです。

プロジェクトの実施により、訪問者へのオファーが大幅に増加し、訪問者数を増やす可能性があり、世界遺産を代表する施設を提供し、新しい施設内にケータリングや休日の宿泊施設を提供することで、地元企業に新しい経済的機会をもたらしました。計画、発掘、建設、新築および修復要素の慎重な管理から、このプロジェクトのすべての詳細を正しく理解するには、プロジェクトチームが信頼できる契約が必要です。 JCT標準建築契約
Quantitiesは、複雑で詳細なプロジェクトの要件を把握するためのフレームワークを提供し、すべての関係者が世界クラスのプロジェクトを確実に提供できるようにします。

重要な事実
クライアント:Cadw
元請業者:RL Davies&amp Son Ltd
アーキテクトとCA:EPTパートナーシップ
土木および構造エンジニア:モットマクドナルド
M&ampEコンサルタント:ジェイコブス
BREEAMコンサルタント:Mott MacDonald
CDMアドバイザー:Opus International
Bridgeテクニカルコンプライアンスオフィサー:Mott MacDonald
橋の下請け業者および上部構造の設計者:SH Structures、David Dexter Associates
ブリッジファンデーションデザイナー:オーパスインターナショナル
PQS:リグビーソープ
ランドスケープアーキテクト:リンガードスタイル


中世の城の部屋

中世の城は、敵軍の攻撃から領土を守るために設計された、紛れもなく強力な防御要塞でしたが、国内の機能も備えていました。領主や君主の権力の座として、中世の城は多くの場合、かなりのスタッフ、法廷のメンバー、重要なゲストを収容するのに十分な大きさでした。

その結果、寝室のような住居だけでなく、キッチンや店舗などの機能的な空間も必要でした。中世の城の外観は大きく異なりますが、一般的に見られる内部の部屋のセットがあります。おそらく、これらの部屋は、現代の家で遭遇する国内の部屋とほぼ同じです。

大ホール

大広間は城のメインルームであり、最大の部屋でした。大広間は、中世を通して宮殿や邸宅にも見られました。

大広間にはさまざまな機能がありました。城主の家族や家族の両方が食事スペースとして使用でき、ゲストが宿泊スペースとしても使用できるため、ゲストを迎えて式典を開催することができました。家族のメンバーが床に寝床を敷きます。

通常、大広間は長方形のレイアウトで、間取り図は幅の1.5倍から3倍長くなります。部屋には高い天井があり、ホールの上端には隆起したエリアまたは「デイズ」があり、ホールの残りの部分がはっきりと見えるように、主、彼の家族、および彼のゲストが食事をします。

通常、ホールに自然光が入る大きな窓もありましたが、城では、要塞の防御効果を損なわないように、この窓を比較的小さくすることができました。

大広間には、料理と暖房を目的とした大きな炉床もありました(ただし、大きな城では、キッチンは別々の部屋にありました)。煙が天井の小さな通気口から部屋を出た(ラドロー城にその例があります)か、煙突が建設されました。

暖炉、特にマントルピースは、多くの場合、紋章や、木、石膏、または石で彫られた他の紋章の装置で精巧に装飾されていました。

同様に、大広間は城の主要な部屋であったため、他の装飾で飾られることがよくありました。たとえば、これらの印象的な部屋には、アーチ型の天井や複雑な窓枠のモールディングがあります。

中世が進むにつれ、城のサイズが大きくなるにつれて大広間は大きくなりました。中世後期から近世にかけてのより大きなマナーハウスと壮大な宮殿も、より広大なホールの建設につながりました。

フランス西部では、より小さく、よりプライベートなホールは、 サレオート または、より大きな大広間の上のマナーハウスの1階に位置する「ハイルーム」が出現しました。この上ホールで、領主とその高位の客が食事をし、リラックスしました。

しかし、16世紀後半までに、王族の手に権力が集中したおかげで、大広間はその重要性を失い始めていました。強力な地元の男性は、地位と保護を求めて王に目を向ける傾向がありました。つまり、領主はより小さな内部世帯を持っていました。

領主と使用人の社会的区別もより明確になり、高貴な宿泊施設に、より小さく、より個室が開発されました。

ベッドチャンバーとソーラー

中世の城の個室には、通常、大広間の上端にある小さな通路からアクセスしました。多くの場合、城の主婦の寝室と居間、およびその近親者や名誉ある客がいます。構造の1階。

通常、中世の城では、家の使用人は主人と愛人の世話をするためにこれらのベッドの部屋にアクセスでき、居間の床、または寝室の床でさえ眠ることがよくありました。場合によってはそれ自体。

場合によっては、領主の個室に大広間に通じる小さな穴があり、そこでの会話を聞くことができます。これらの上層階の部屋は、「グレートチャンバー」または「ソーラー」としても知られていました。

太陽は城主の私的な居住区でした。その名前はラテン語に由来します。 ソラリス 「太陽」(部屋の明るさに関係する可能性があります)を意味する、または単語から ソラス 「単独」を意味します。

太陽は、城の主と彼の近親者が、下の大広間の騒音と商売から離れて、プライバシーを守ることを可能にしました。また、くつろぎの場としても利用され、主人が私的な商売をしたり、集会を開いたりする場としても機能しました。

それは地位の高い個人のためのプライベートスペースとして意図されていたので、太陽は大広間よりはるかに小さかった。それは通常、装飾用の木工品や石積みで飾られ、より細かく装飾されていました。

壁にはしばしば豪華なタペストリーが掛けられており、城の石の壁にもかかわらず、暖炉が部屋全体を暖かく保ちます。

大広間と同様に、中世後期の邸宅や宮殿の太陽は、以前の城に見られるものよりもはるかに大きく、より豊かに装飾されました。

ウィンザー城には、壁が金色の星で緑色に塗られたソーラーがあり、グレートディクスターのマナーハウスには3つの部屋があります。ただし、エドリンガム城には、より単純で初期の中世の太陽の良い例が含まれています。

ノルマンディーと北フランスでは、太陽はしばしば城やマナーハウスから離れた別の建物や塔に配置されていたことにも注意する必要があります。

トイレ

あらゆる家庭環境に欠かせない中世の城のトイレは、「privy」、「draught」、「gong」、またはおそらく最もよく知られている「garderobe」など、多くの名前で知られていました。

後にガードローブという言葉はフランス語で「ワードローブ」を意味するようになりましたが、城のトイレはスペースを節約するために非常に小さかったため、中世には「食器棚」を意味した可能性があります。

城では、ガードローブは通常非常に単純な穴であり、そこから排泄物が建物の外の汚水溜まりに、あるいは城の堀にまっすぐに落ちることがありました。

ガードローブは、城壁から突き出たハンチ(多くの場合、下からの支えのために支えられている)の上に建てられたため、廃棄物は城壁のすぐ隣に落ちました。12世紀に建てられたイギリスのペヴェリル城には、ガードローブがありました。それは崖の顔にぶら下がっていました。

城のガードローブには、排泄物を汚水溜まりに導くためのシャフトが付いていることがありますが、これらのシャフトは、攻撃者が地面まで伸びている場合に役立つ可能性があります。フランスのシャトーガイヤールは、包囲された兵士がシャフトを登り、ガルデローブを通って城に入ったときに捕らえられました。

城の主は専用のガードローブを持っていたでしょうが、城の残りの住民は共同トイレを使用するか、あるいはおまるを利用していました。

コケ、干し草、草がトイレットペーパーとしてよく使われていました。より豪華な構造のガードローブは、部屋に心地よい香りを与えるためにハーブと花を特徴としていたようです。

ほとんどのトイレには窓があり、壁は石灰石膏で白塗りされていました。それらはまた水できれいにされた。興味深いことに、イギリスのオーフォードなどの一部の城には小便器があるようです。この場合、小便器は壁画の通路に建てられており、当番の警備員がすぐに安心できるようになっているようです。

キッチン

城の厨房は大広間や他の居住区から分離されていたため、主に厨房からの騒音や煙が城の住宅部分に届きませんでした。調理は、大きな直火を使用して行われ、その上で食べ物が串で調理され、オーブンも使用されました。

これらのオーブンは巨大である可能性があります-Ludgershallの城には、おそらく牛全体を収めることができるオーブンがありました。食品は、大釜で煮たり、オーブンで焼いたり、串焼き、揚げたり、喫煙したりして調理しました。

現代のキッチンと同じように、鍋、フライパン、ナイフ、おたま、ボウル、フォーク、はさみ、乳鉢と乳棒は重要な道具でした。城の大きさと重要性に応じて、キッチンには他のさまざまなスタッフの助けを借りて料理人がいるでしょう。

これらには、肉や他の食品の接合部を保持している大きな唾を回すために暖炉のそばに配置された肉屋、パン屋、酌取り、醸造所、給仕スタッフ、さらには唾を吐く少年さえ含まれていました。

大きな城の厨房は主要な業務である可能性があり、宴会やごちそうを主催するために膨大な量の材料が必要になります。火を燃やすためだけに膨大な数の丸太が必要だったでしょう。

厨房は城の重要な部分であり、要塞に食料を供給したという理由だけではありませんでした。城はまた、威厳と威信の表明であったため、城の厨房も訪問者を感動させる豪華な食事を作り出すことができなければなりませんでした。

特に肉は中世の金持ちの定番でした。肉には鶏肉、豚肉、牛肉など今日でも人気のあるものが含まれていましたが、アヒル、ガチョウ、ハト、キジ、マトンもたくさん食べられました。肉は大釜で「茹で」たり、火で焼いたりすることが多く、餃子、ペストリー、パイも人気がありました。

魚も定期的に食べられ、通常は塩漬けや燻製で保存され、塩水とエールで揚げたり煮たりして調理されました。 Crayfish, eels and oysters were particularly rich seafood used by lords to impress their guests, while sturgeon and whale were the most prestigious. Vegetables were also eaten with meals, along with bread.

Cheese, pastries and fruits were commonly served as dessert, with exotic fruits such as dates and figs being served by lords wanting to make a statement.

Herbs, salt, vinegar, mustard and aniseed were the most common ways to flavour food, and honey was used as a sweetener – spices were very expensive and rarely used. Wine and beer were typically consumed with most meals.

Pantry and Larder

The pantry was a storage space for foods which lasted, such as bread and baked goods, as well as objects such as plates and cutlery. The name derives from the Old French word paneterie, which itself comes from the Latin word パン, meaning ‘bread’.

In a castle, the pantry was usually a separate storage room, although some food preparation would sometimes take place here. The pantry was overseen by a member of staff known as a ‘pantler’.

The larder was a storage room for food which did not last and was therefore kept at a cooler temperature to help with preservation – in northern European castles this was typically achieved by building the larder on the north-eastern side of the building, the side which got the least sun.

Small windows would also help with the circulation of cold air, and sometimes a large stone was included, onto which food could be placed to keep it cool.

It was in the larder that meat would be hung on hooks from the ceiling in order to cure it before cooking.

Buttery

The buttery in a medieval castle was positioned close to the kitchen and the great hall and was the room where alcohol was stored. The name likely derives from the French of Latin word for bottle, or from the word ‘butt’, the casks in which the beer itself was stored.

The buttery was presided over by a ‘butler’, who would serve the beer in the great hall. Beer was consumed very regularly in a medieval castle, as it was much safer to drink than water – most meals would be accompanied with very weak beer for this reason, so the buttery was an important storage room.

Gatehouse

The castle gatehouse was a fortified entrance building set into the curtain walls, constructed around the castle gate. As concentric castles developed and the need for free-standing stone keeps lessened, large gatehouses took over many of the defensive functions the keep had previously fulfilled.

They would typically have had one or more portcullises, as well as arrow slits, murder holes and machicolations to allow defenders to fire missiles and drop hot oil and water onto attacking soldiers – Harlech Castle has a large and highly developed gatehouse.

It was common to see two gatehouses on concentric castles with two lines of curtain walls. Drawbridges were sometimes added, although these were a later development and were actually fairly rare in medieval castles.

Some castles also had barbicans, thin enclosed passageways that stood before the gatehouse, and which were designed to slow the progress of enemy troops.

The barbican would also have murder holes and arrow slits, to allow defenders to fire at besiegers caught in the narrow passageway. Gatehouses usually contained guardrooms for garrison soldiers to rest and sleep in.

In a smaller castle or an earlier medieval castle without a gatehouse, guards would have likely stayed in the upper floors of the keep itself.

チャペル

Christianity dominated all aspects of life in medieval Europe, and castles were no exception. As they were both military and domestic spaces, castles needed to be able to fulfil religious functions such as ceremonies, from regular masses to burials and feasts.

They were, of course, also places for private prayer. Inclusion of a chapel was also important to lords building castles for symbolic reasons, as constructing churches of any kind was a prestigious activity.

By patronising their faith through the construction of churches, medieval nobles hoped to not only gain political status, but also spiritual benefits. It was believed that aiding the church would increase the status of one’s soul and place it in good standing after death.

Chapels could also be used as a place of sanctuary if a castle was captured, as it was a great sin to spill blood in a holy church.

As castles varied greatly in size, so too did castle chapels. Larger fortifications with richer owners had space and resources to build free-standing chapels, such as the one that can be seen at Windsor castle.

However, most castles simply had an interior room dedicated as a chapel, such as can be seen at Castle Rising in England. In this case, the chapel is simply a small room which would have featured an altar and other objects necessary for a religious ceremony.

Although castle chapels may have been used by the local population, they rarely included burial grounds thanks to their small size.

In larger chapels, there was sometimes tiered seating to reinforce rank, and some castle chapels are known to have been built over the gate in order to bring spiritual protection to the gate itself, the most vulnerable point of the fortification in the event of a siege (Wildenburg Castle in Germany has one such chapel).

Storage Rooms

Aside from dedicated storage spaces for food and drink inside the keep, there were also additional rooms around the castle which could be used to hold a variety of things.

Vaulted chambers, often underneath castle walls, were known as ‘casemates’ and were safe places to shelter supplies as well as soldiers.

Undercrofts were also common in the later medieval period. These were vaulted underground cellars, usually used as storerooms, although they could have other uses – the undercroft at Myres Castle in Scotland was used as a kitchen, for example.


England’s Windsor Castle was built after William the Conqueror’s invasion in the 11th century. Since then, it’s been a residence for the royal family to this day. Even if modern British monarchs just use this place for a weekend getaway. And yes, you’d almost mistake this gatehouse as the castle itself.

So we’re off to a great start. Some of the other distinguishing castle features are towers and the gates. When you look at any castle picture, you might come across an imposing entrance with the impressive gatehouse containing a drawbridge and that sliding iron wrought door of spikes. Yet, since an unsecure entrance made a castle uniquely vulnerable, the gateway was usually the first structure built in stone. A gatehouse contained a series of defenses to make a direct assault more difficult than battering down a simple gate. Yet, you’d probably wouldn’t know this in movies where vast armies storm the castle with no problem. In reality, trying to storm a castle head was a stupid way to lose an army. Another prominent castle feature are the towers, which were used for look outs and shooting arrows along with storage and imprisonment. They could be built in various locations like the walls and the gatehouse as well as come in a variety of shapes and sizes. Though early towers were mostly square shape which were said to be quite easy to topple through burrowing at the foundations. While round towers were not.

The Welsh Harlech Castle was built by English King Edward I Longshanks in the 1280s. It was involved in several wars and was used as a residence and military headquarters by Welsh hero Owain Glyndwr in the early 1400s. Later, it was held by the Lancastrians during the 1460s until the Yorkist forces took it during the Wars of the Roses. And served as a Royalist stronghold during the English Civil War in the 1640s. Today it’s a UNESCO World Heritage site as one of “the finest examples of late 13th century and early 14th century military architecture in Europe.” Nonetheless, seeing this imposing gatehouse, you wouldn’t want to storm this castle.

Barbican- a stone outpost protecting the castle’s gate usually built in front of the main entrance. Construed in the form of a tower or gateway where guards could stand watch. Some may include a narrow passage allowing for a limited number of attackers forced into a confined area for defenders to shoot at them like fish in a barrel through murder holes from the ceiling. Early barbicans were built from earthworks and wooden palisades designed to add complexity to the entrance’s layout and confuse attackers. Usually acted as the outermost defense of a castle. Due to limited space, was only defended by a small number of men.

Breastwork- a heavy parapet slung between 2 gate towers. A defensive work usually situated over the portcullis.

Drawbridge- wooden bridge in front of the main gate to span the moat or ditch. In early castles, it was moved horizontally to the ground by hand or destroyed and replaced. In later castles, it was built so it can raise up in a hinged fashion thanks to pulleys, ropes, chains, and winches. Can be raised or withdrawn making crossing impossible and prevent siege weaponry being pushed toward the castle’s walls and gates.

Gatehouse- a complex of towers, bridges, and barriers built to protect the castle’s main entrance. Often had a guard house and living quarters. Usually consisted of 2 very large stone towers joined above the main gate guarded by a bridge, gates, portcullis, or a combination. But can range from a simple structure to a 2-3 story building with an impressive façade to impress royal visitors. Above the entrance were rooms to house the constable and some men to defend the building who were stationed on the first floor. While the top floor contained murder holes and storage space for weapons. Traditionally the most vulnerable part of the castle, it became one of the most secure and with an excellent defensive position. Contains a passage with all kinds of obstacles, traps, and murder holes in the vaulted ceilings. So perhaps you want to think twice before storming a castle. Usually the first part of the castle to be completed. Though a larger and circular wall castle could have more than one.

Murder Holes- holes left in the floor on a gatehouse’s upper level, used to thrust pole weapons down, or shoot down flaming arrows at attackers trapped between the inner and outer gates. Also used for dropping heavy rocks, hot tar, boiling water, and other nasty things.

Neck or Death Trap- a narrow walled passage between a barbican and the castle walls which trapped invading enemies.

Portcullis- a heavy, sliding metal or wood grate with sharp spikes that was vertically dropped just inside the castle’s main gate through ropes and pulleys. Designed to block passage and make using rams against the main gate less effective. Think about that before trying to break down a door with a battering ram. Can also be dropped on an enemy and injure multiple people. Was always in a state of readiness and the guards can drop it from its suspended position at any time. Some gatehouses could had more than one, depending on the castle’s size and number of entrances.

Turning Bridge- drawbridge pivoted in the middle and worked like a see-saw. Had a counterweight attached to the end near the gateway.

Wicket- a person-sized door set into the main gate door.

Wing-Wall- a motte’s wall downslope to protect stairway.

Yett- a portcullis of lattice wrought iron bars used for defensive purposes.

Originally built in the early 1100s, the Alcazar of Segovia started out as a fortress, but has served as a royal palace, a state prison, a Royal Artillery college, and a military academy. Today it’s a military archives building, museum, and a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Yet, you have to admit how its towers give the place a unique look.

Bastion Tower- tower projecting from a wall face that functions as a bastion.

Bastle House- a small tower house with a living room over a cowshed.

Corner or Archer Tower- tower located on curtain wall corners used for firing arrows from slits.

Drum Tower- a large, round, low, squat tower built into a wall, usually connecting stretches of curtain wall.

Flanking or Mural Tower- tower located on the castle walls that provided effective flanking fire.

Gate Tower- tower constructed at the main entrance. May be part of the gate house.

Tower- fortification used to provide stability and additional defensive capabilities to the curtain wall. Used for firing upon enemies, lookout, storage, and keeping prisoners. Provided access to lookout points, wall walks, and sleeping points. Can be constructed in various shapes, sizes, and at various locations.

Sanitary Towers- a tower in the inner or outer walls used as a toilet. The wastes would drop into a cesspool in a pit.

Wall Tower- tower on wall that archers used for showering arrows on invading armies.

Watchtower or Look Out- a freestanding structure used to alert the castle in an enemy attack, spot returning soldiers and visitors in the distance, check whether the coast was clear before anyone left the castle, and send messages to distant people using recognized symbols. Had to be so high that areas around the castle could be watched for an impending attack or siege. Usually had a 360-degree view as well as employed a guard or watchman to see for many miles around.

Belgium’s 14th century Cleydael Castle seems straight out of a fairy tale on the water. However, the turrets on that one tower are quite unique.

Bartizan or Crow’s Nest- a small turret at the corner of a tower or wall. Usually at the top but not always. Usually located at one of the highest points of the castle and used as a lookout.

Belvedere- a raised turret or pavilion.

Squinch Arch- arched support for an angle turret that doesn’t reach the ground.

Turret- a small tower rising above and resting on the walls or the edge of the castle’s main towers, usually used as a lookout point. Allowed defenders to provide sheltering fire to the adjacent wall in attacks. Can contain a staircase if higher than the main tower or an extension of a tower room.


Jun 15 The Iron Ring of Welsh Fortress Castles by Edward I

harlech castle entrance ©jennifer bailey 2018

harlech castle ©jennifer bailey 2018

The days we spent in Wales were a bit of a blur if I'm honest. We packed in so much I can't remember what we did when. But I do remember the castles.

I wrote a while back something that I believed to be true at the time. I was annoyed at fantasy writers, because having visited England and explored and tromped over dozens and dozens of castles, I was irritated at how wrong they described them. Almost all fantasy writers describe the interior almost as a regular house, with hallways and chambers (parlors) and hallways.

harlech castle gatehouse ©jennifer bailey 2018

This really irked me after I'd been to a few dozen castles because I felt like I'd been lied to. None of the books I'd read could be full realized in my imagination because the actual castles were nothing like the books written. I get it, sure, it's "fantasy" so I should get over myself but I always felt like the authors were at least trying to root them in some form of realism.

beaumaris castle entrance ©jennifer bailey 2018 (samsung galaxy s8)

I still actually feel like fantasy authors don't really write castles correctly at all, not really. At least, not (most) American ones. How could they? Looking at pictures in a book or online just does not give you the feel and layout. It's just something I am always thinking about when I am exploring castles. I've been to quite a few. The only author I feel like that really grasps castles is Tad Williams. Every place I tromp about in England feels like some part of the Hayholt that managed to find its way to England somehow and I was exploring *it* instead of the actual castle I was seeing. Particularly Kenilworth and Beaumaris. I am pretty certain it's.良い。 you'll see soon enough.

beaumaris castle ©jennifer bailey 2018 (samsung galaxy s8)

What I did not realize, however, is that the Welsh castles that Edward I (the Longshanks. yes, that one) built in the 13th century all had hallways. Of course, I had been to Conwy years ago but none of the others, but this trip, we made it to all four. Conwy, Caernarfon, Harlech and Beaumaris. These were all to dominate and subjugate the Welsh -- I know they call Edward I the Hammer of the Scots but in truth he could barely be bothered with them and was focused on Welsh revolts for decades. He beat them down twice and in order for a third revolt to never occur, he built the "Iron Ring" of those great four Fortress castles in north Wales.

beaumaris castle ©jennifer bailey 2018 (samsung galaxy s8)

beaumaris castle ©jennifer bailey 2018 (samsung galaxy s8)

Harlech, Conwy and Caernarfon were basically contemporary but Beaumaris was an advanced design. It was also never completed. Beaumaris was totally spectacular. It is also not as ruined as the others and you can still enjoy the interior halls, they are almost complete. I cannot express my nerdy joy at discovering what I finally recognized as a "Fantasy" castle. The hallways were dank and wet and dark, so dark in some places where there was no electric lighting. I could completely imagine how insane they would have been in the middle ages. You would need a torch or oil lamp just to walk in the halls even in daylight, they were THAT dark. It was totally great. :NS

beaumaris castle, if it had been completed.

beaumaris castle servant/side room ©jennifer bailey 2018 (samsung galaxy s8)

They twisted, they turned, they went on and on and on in tight angles, up circling staircases and dizzying heights. It was completely and totally fantastic and I was heady with thousands of castles and places I'd read about.

There were rooms off the hallways in sections, and smaller rooms right off the main chambers, absolutely for servants or lesser guests. My imagination was running full sprint, it was just perfect.

So castles do have hallways, who knew. At least, 'fancy' royal castles built by a King that were the pinnacle of castle building and the engineering marvels of the century, at any rate. Most still don't. Most are just keeps, with walls around an inner bailey and buildings built along the walls. Keeps absolutely have no hallways! They just have corner spiral staircases that brought you floor to floor and each floor was one big room, sometimes two. Dividers were a big thing in the middle ages, made of wood and fabric.

beaumaris castle twisting passages ©jennifer bailey 2018 (samsung galaxy s8)

beaumaris castle ©jennifer bailey 2018 (samsung galaxy s8)

I'm just wishing American fantasy authors would have just gotten it closer to the real thing. Maybe I should have been reading British fantasy authors but. I am not sure I know any other than Tolkien and he didn't spend a lot of time in his books walking around the living quarters of castles like every current author seems to do. Maybe that should tell us something about the current state of fantasy, haha!

I didn't bring my camera to Caernarfon or Conwy. I'd already been to Conwy and the light was bad that day - very rainy. Caernarfon was spectacular but it was rainy and grey. I didn't even break out my phone! But Beaumaris had me slipping out my phone anyway, because look at the passages and twisting curves and side nooks and rooms. It was endless and perfect and I couldn't resist. I didn't have my canon but that just gives me a good reason to come back and hope for good weather. Besides, the watery and rainy day just added to the atmosphere, the passages were dank, wet and dark. Exactly how castles should be, it was just excellent! :)

I know I've been expounding about fantasy authors and the lack of authenticity but let me just end this post with a bit of hilarious history about Harlech castle. It was considered an engineering marvel at the time, it had 4 portcullis gates and a moat and a drawbridge and an incredibly imposing strong gatehouse. and yet. it fell to every siege that faced it. Four times it was sieged, four times it fell. Kind of says a lot about the hearts and strength of the Welsh, if you ask me ) They were the ones taking it back from the English each time.


概要

None of Edward I’s mighty coastal fortresses has a more spectacular setting

Harlech Castle crowns a sheer rocky crag overlooking the dunes far below – waiting in vain for the tide to turn and the distant sea to lap at its feet once again.

No further drama is really required but, just in case, the rugged peaks of Snowdonia rise as a backdrop. Against fierce competition from Conwy, Caernarfon and Beaumaris, this is probably the most spectacular setting for any of Edward I’s castles in North Wales. All four are designated as a World Heritage Site.

Harlech was completed from ground to battlements in just seven years under the guidance of gifted architect Master James of St George. Its classic ‘walls within walls’ design makes the most of daunting natural defences.

Even when completely cut off by the rebellion of Madog ap Llewelyn the castle held out – thanks to the ‘Way from the Sea’. This path of 108 steps rising steeply up the rock face allowed the besieged defenders to be fed and watered by ship.

Harlech is easier to conquer today. An incredible ‘floating’ footbridge allows you to enter this great castle as Master James intended – for the first time in 600 years.


Gatehouse Interior, Harlech Castle - History

Remains of the castle keep at Harlech Castle, North Wales.

We drove into the village of Harlech hoping to find a good view of the famous 13th century castle only to discover that the best place is from the road below.

Harlech Castle was built by Edward I during his invasion of Wales between 1282 and 1289. Over the next few centuries, the castle played an important part in several wars, withstanding the siege of Madog ap Llywelyn between 1294–95, but falling to Owain Glyndŵr in 1404. It then became Glyndŵr's residence and military headquarters for the remainder of the uprising until being recaptured by English forces in 1409. During the 15th century Wars of the Roses, Harlech was held by the Lancastrians for seven years, before Yorkist troops forced its surrender in 1468, a siege memorialised in the song Men of Harlech. Following the outbreak of the English Civil War in 1642, the castle was held by forces loyal to Charles I, holding out until 1647 when it became the last fortification to surrender to the Parliamentary armies.

UNESCO considers Harlech to be one of "the finest examples of late 13th century and early 14th century military architecture in Europe", and it is classed as a World Heritage site. The fortification is built of local stone and concentric in design, featuring a massive gatehouse that probably once provided high-status accommodation for the castle constable and visiting dignitaries. The sea originally came much closer to Harlech than in modern times, and a water-gate and a long flight of steps leads down from the castle to the former shore, which allowed the castle to be resupplied by sea during sieges. In keeping with Edward's other castles in North Wales, the architecture of Harlech has close to links to that found in the County of Savoy during the same period, an influence probably derived from the Savoy origins of the main architect, James of Saint George.

Harlech Castle in a village in Gwynedd, North Wales.

Harlech Castle was built during King Edward I's second campaign in north Wales. It was part of an "iron ring" of castles surrounding the coastal fringes of Snowdonia, eventually stretching from Flint around to Aberystwyth a ring intended to prevent the region from ever again becoming a focal point of insurrection and a last bastion of resistance. Following the fall of the Welsh stronghold of Castell y Bere, King Edward's forces arrived at Harlech in April, 1283, and building work began almost immediately.

Over the next six years an army of masons, quarriers, laborers and other craftsmen were busily engaged in construction. In 1286, with the work at its height, nearly 950 men were employed under the superintendence of Master James. The final result was a perfectly concentric castle, where one line of defenses is enclosed by another. Unfortunately, the outer wall is ruinous today and fails to convey the true 13th-century effect.

The natural strength of the castle rock and cliff face meant that only the east face was open to possible attack. Here the gatehouse still offers an insolent display of power. The gate-passage itself was protected by a succession of no less than seven obstacles, including three portcullises. On either side of the passage were guardrooms, and the upper floors of the gatehouse provided the main private accommodation at Harlech. The first floor must have been for the constable, or governor, who from 1290-93 was none other than Master James himself. The comfortable rooms on the top floor probably served as a suite for visiting dignitaries, including the king.

Harlech Castle played a key role in the national uprising led by Owain Glyndwr. After a long siege, it fell to his forces in 1404. The castle became Glyndwr's residence and headquarters, and one of the two places to which he is believed to have summoned parliaments of his supporters. It was only after a further long siege in 1408 that Harlech was retaken by English forces under Harry of Monmouth, later Henry V.

Sixty years later, during the War of the Roses, the castle was held for the Lancastrians until taken by Lord Herbert of Raglan for the Yorkist side. It was this prolonged siege which traditionally gave rise to the song Men of Harlech.


The great castles of North Wales

Approaching Conwy Castle from its overflow parking lot, your view is blocked by a high railroad embankment with a long pedestrian tunnel beneath it. This turns out to be a good thing. Now the castle can simply spring upon you, its massive southern wall bathed in light. It rises as a black monolith flanked by giant towers, emerging organically from the bedrock that erupts from the greensward. From this view, you can get some of the feelings that a 13th-century Welshman might have felt when he first saw this castle in its glory. You can understand what the English king Edward I “Longshanks” wanted it to be when he built it in 1287.
It’s a terror weapon.

続きを読む

Two centuries before Edward built Conwy, Duke William of Normandy invaded England to become King William I “The Conqueror,” and his Norman vassals seized English and Welsh estates alike. In Wales, these new Norman lords took over estates primarily in the south and along the borders (“marches”) with England. These “Marcher Lords” came and went, sometimes enlarging their lands, sometimes getting their clocks cleaned by the natives. In the 1210s there was a great deal of clock-cleaning, as rebellious English barons forced King John to sign the Magna Carta, then got him involved in a protracted civil war that would lead to his death in 1216. In the confusion, a resurgent Welsh nobility had the chance to get some of their own back.

Built on a rocky promontory above the River Conwy between 1287-1292, Conwy Castle today is but the largest attraction in one of Britain’s most charming walled towns. JIM HARGAN

Past Welsh revolts had failed, dissolving into internecine conflicts that were easily exploited whenever the English monarchy managed to get its act together. This time it would be different. The prince who ruled Wales’ mountainous northwest, an unconquered region known then and now as Gwynedd (pronounced gwinneth ), became the unchallenged leader of unconquered Wales. Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, known as “Llywelyn the Great,” used diplomacy and war to unify the Welsh nobles under him and take lands from the Marcher lords.

In 1218 King John’s successor, Henry III (then 11 years old), acknowledged Llywelyn as “Prince of Wales.” Skillful politics and carefully considered warfare kept the title and lands intact, to be inherited by his son Dafydd, then his grandson Llywelyn ap Gruffydd, “Llywelyn the Last.” It was Llywelyn the Last who lost all of Wales to the English king Edward I, and got himself killed in the process.

After Edward Longshanks had received Llywelyn’s head from his killers, he built four great castles in the heart of Llywelyn’s principality: Conwy, Harlech, Caernarfon, and Beaumaris. They were among the largest and most sophisticated castles ever built.

C ONWY

Northwest Wales is dramatically mountainous, and at Conwy these mountains extend to the sea’s edge. The north-flowing Conwy River marks the eastern border of the mountains, a wide tidal slash that has long been a barrier to trade and conquest behind it, the princes of Gwynedd had long been safe. Mostly, the Conwy River is edged by muds and marshes, but at Conwy a hard mountain ridge-line runs straight to the river and disappears under its waters. This is the narrowest point at the river’s mouth, and the only practical crossing for miles. It was here, in 1283, that Edward’s men started work on the first of the four castles.

Up through the 1950s, this eastern approach to Conwy presented one of the finest views in Britain. The castle rises straight out of the water, a looming hulk framed by massive bare cliffs, with a charming walled town hugging its downstream side. Thomas Telford’s delicate 1826 suspension bridge links it with the eastern shore, a graceful span whose castellated towers complement the castle. The railroad crosses behind Telford’s bridge on an 1848 tubular structure whose castellated piers are larger and clunkier than Telford’s, but still attractive. The castle, the town and the two bridges made for a stunning set piece—but Telford’s 8-foot-wide bridge could not handle the traffic, and a new bridge opened beside it in 1958. It’s not an ugly bridge, but some of the grandeur is gone.

Like all true castles, Conwy was both an aristocratic residence and a military base. It had to meet the daily needs of a fine lord and his lady, it had to house a bunch of rough soldiers and it had to withstand the most brutal and prolonged attacks. These needs converged to serve one overarching goal: to project power, both practically and psychologically. As a military base, the castle could completely control a 20-mile radius with just a small force of mounted knights, and it could defend itself so well that only the most powerful would dare challenge it.

As a noble residence, it demonstrated the overwhelming power, prestige and wealth of its owner. In this case, its owner was Edward I, the richest and most powerful lord of them all, and the era’s greatest warrior. Conwy wasn’t just meant to awe it was meant to scare the living daylights out of anyone who dared challenge its power.

Bear in mind that Edward started Conwy Castle after he had killed Llywelyn and won all of Wales for himself. Although anti-insurgency operations would continue for another 13 years, Edward didn’t need a castle on this scale to fight insurgents. He needed it to scare them. To gain the site, Edward demolished a palace of Llywelyn’s and a monastery in which Llywelyn the Great was buried. Eight mammoth cylindrical towers bulge out from the walls, each one seven stories high and 30 feet in diameter, set so close together that the castle appears to be little more than a collection of towers. Outside, more walls enclosed—and enclose to this day—a sizable town, first populated wholly by English colonists intent on profiting from the newly conquered lands. All this construction was plastered and whitewashed, a gleaming intrusion from an enemy state.

Caernarfon Castle interior. JIM HARGAN

And it was all ludicrously expensive. Built in just five years, Conwy Castle consumed an amount of money equal to the English government’s entire tax receipts for a year. It was not only physically and technologically beyond anything Gwynedd could have produced, it required more wealth than the principality could have hoped to produce in a century. No one could hope to succeed against anyone powerful enough to build such a castle at Conwy, no one even tried. And Edward built three more castles nearby, just like it.

H ARLECH

Amazingly, Edward started Harlech at the same time as Conwy, finishing it in 1289. Its purpose was straightforward it anchored the southwest corner of Gwynedd, just as Conwy anchored its northeast. This squarish castle occupies the top of a tall, rocky outcrop that, at the time, rose as a near-cliff 200 feet out of the sea.

It’s even larger than Conwy, with a lower wall that encloses and protects the sea approach at the bottom of the cliff, then a stunning inner wall (a “curtain wall” in castle parlance, as it seems to hang like a curtain between the towers) rising 35 feet above its leveled platform on the knoll’s top.

Inside, it has a single large inner bailey, with one of the most massive gatehouses in Britain, providing housing for its lord and its garrison, as well as protection from attack. It worked in 1294, 37 men held off a determined attack and long siege by Welsh insurrectionists. Today, its mountainous location makes it an impressive and romantic sight, even though two miles of sand deposits now separate this former headland from the sea.

Castles such as Harlech and Conwy were not only foreign intrusions in Wales, they were foreign to all Britain. Castles evolved on the Continent during the 9th century along the Rhone and Rhine rivers, from hill forts built using a design that placed wood palisade walls around a large enclosed area (“outer bailey”), then a wood tower on a high spot protected by its own inner palisade, which formed an inner bailey around the tower.

During the 10th century, French warriors discovered that they could throw up one of these compounds anywhere, in just a few weeks, by impressing the conquered locals as a slave labor force. From inside, they could send parties of mounted knights out to protect or oppress the countryside and be back in time for dinner.

Really successful castles would later be rebuilt in stone. By the 13th century, the palisades had become thick curtain walls hung between high towers, and the inner tower on a mound (“motte”) had evolved into the Great Tower (or donjon in French).

The Normans brought castles to both England and Wales as instruments of occupation and intimidation. By the late 12th century, the Gwynedd princes had started building castles to protect themselves from the Normans, and some of these survive.

The small castle at Dolbadarn, in the shadow of Wales’ largest mountain, Mount Snowdon, is just down the road from Caernarfon. Built by Llywelyn the Great, it features a round 50-foot great tower that commands a wide view of the surrounding peaks. A modest castle set in great natural beauty, it makes for an evocative visit, the more so after having seen one of Edward’s massive castles at Conwy, Harlech or nearby Caernarfon.

C AERNARFON

Biggest and greatest of them all, Caernarfon (pronounced kyre-NAR-vonn ) sits on the coast halfway between Conwy and Harlech. It was meant from the first to be a palace as well as a castle, and Edward pulled out all the stops. Like Harlech and Conwy, Caernarfon sits on the sea with tidal access to medieval ships unlike the others, it occupies flat land on a peninsula then nearly surrounded by water. The castle stretches the length of three football fields along the harbor, with an unbroken curtain wall 36 feet high.

Edward deliberately made the wall and its massive projecting towers to look like the walls of ancient Roman Constantinople (which he had seen on crusade), with different kinds of rocks forming long, colored stripes around the walls. This turned out to be an inspired piece of propaganda, as the Welsh had long since embraced the tall tales of Gregory of Monmouth’s History of the Kings of Britain , in which Caernarfon had featured as the site of a widespread Welsh empire during the Roman era. Edward declared Caernarfon to be the seat of his new Welsh government, just as the Welsh believed it had served as the seat of a Welsh empire in the days of King Arthur. As at Conwy, Edward extended the castle walls to enclose a sizable town of English colonists, from which Welshmen were banned for the next 200 years.

To punch up the propaganda value of Caernarfon, Edward and his family were in residence in 1284, only the second year of construction, so that his wife Eleanor could give birth there. The child became known as Edward of Caernarfon, and in 1301 Edward Longshanks bestowed the title of Prince of Wales upon his son. Edward of Caernarfon went on to rule England as Edward II, and the expected heir to the throne has been declared the Prince of Wales ever since.

Despite these royal aspirations for Caernarfon, it was never completed. In the Welsh revolt of 1294, which Harlech survived so handily, Caernarfon village was captured immediately the rebels simply walked through the unfinished castle gate. They destroyed both castle and town pretty thoroughly, and it took mammoth expenditure to rebuild the battered town and castle and complete the defenses. When the money ran out again, several internal buildings and tower interiors were left permanently unfinished.

Modern Caernarfon Castle sits on the southern edge of a sprawling town, once rich on slate and now rather down at the heels. Its stonework remains almost completely intact, and at high tide its magnificent curtain walls reflect in the still waters of the harbor. Inside it forms nearly a figure eight with the same sort of plan as Conwy: a lower bailey for the garrison and service buildings, and an upper bailey for the royal family. The walls are especially thick, and you can walk nearly around the castle in two interior tunnels as well as along the parapet. Two of the towers hold exhibits—one on the Prince of Wales that includes the slate throne upon which Prince Charles sat so many decades ago, the other on the castle’s history. The old walled town is also worth a visit, with the lane along the inside of the east wall, Hole In The Wall Lane, being particularly scenic.

B EAUMARIS

The fourth of Edward’s great castles was a bit of a historical footnote. Squat and square, this castle (whose name means “fair marsh”) occupies low land on the northeast coast of the island of Anglesey, just across the Menai Strait from Bangor. In Edward’s day this was the main ferry to Anglesey, and travelers used it to reach the Holyhead boat to Ireland, just as they do now. Edward started Beaumaris much later than the others, and despite 37 years of off-and-on work, it was never close to completion.

Beaumaris was an afterthought, the result of the Revolt of 1294 that saw Harlech resist and Caernarfon fall. The rebels quickly took over Anglesey and executed its chief official, the sheriff—a particular friend of Edward’s. Edward reacted with typical forcefulness and ferocity, launching a devastating campaign in the dead of winter that caught the rebels by surprise and routed them. At that point, Edward realized that he’d better have a castle on Anglesey.

Modern Beaumaris gets its squat appearance from the fact it was never completed. It is a square, symmetrical castle, surrounded by a flooded moat. Inside the moat is an octagonal outer curtain wall with 15 towers, intentionally built rather low to catch crossfire from the much higher inner walls. About 60 feet behind this is the main castle, with 35-foot curtain walls, six large towers and two huge gatehouses set opposite each other. These towers and gatehouses were meant to match Harlech in size and scale, but none was completed, and no tower ever came close to full height.

Brilliant and brutal, Edward Longshanks had one goal: to unify Britain under the English monarchy, as (he believed) Arthur had unified it eight centuries before. That he was the new Arthur, and fully capable of building a whole series of massively oppressive Camelots, he wanted no one in Wales to doubt. Today, his four greatest castles may have long lost their power to terrorize, but they retain their power to awe.


10. The location of a castle was its main defence

Despite the elaborate design of castles and their impenetrable two-metre thick outer walls, the chosen location of a fortification was its most important form of defence and strategy.

The Châteaux de Lastours complex in France was built into mountains, making it difficult for any would-be invaders to access it.

Some castles were built close to the sea, a location that served two purposes: not only did it enable the sighting of any incoming naval invasions, but it was hoped that imposing clifftop stone fortresses would help to repel unwanted invaders by demonstrating military strength.

Castles were also often built on hilltops. This ancient choice of location served the simple purpose of enabling its residents to see for miles around from a great height. Any attackers could be easily spotted and preparations for defence put into place.

Equally, if built at a great height, many castles would be logistically impossible to attack, for siege weapons such as trebuchets could not force their way close enough to the castle walls. The Châteaux de Lastours complex in France was built within the mountains and remains difficult to access to this day.

During the Albigensian Crusades of the 13th century, the complex served as a place of refuge for the persecuted Cathars, who came from nearby Carcassone. In 1209, meanwhile, it consistently resisted the forceful attacks of Simon de Montfort, 5th Earl of Leicester.


ビデオを見る: Change of Guards Horse Guards Palace - London, UK HD (九月 2022).


コメント:

  1. Maed

    確実な答え

  2. Hapu

    この場合どうしますか?

  3. Florence

    これから私をライセンスしてください。



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